Fuzzballs v. Black Holes
Samir Mathur noted that a black hole must be made of not just one or two particles, but a billion particles colliding. Remarkably, his calculations revealed that when these particles come together, the resulting object does not have a smooth surface, but a fluffy, textured one. By contrast, conventional black holes are thought to be featureless at the horizon. Hence, Mathur coined the name “fuzzball.” Unlike mysterious singularities, where conventional physics appears to breakdown, the goings-on within fuzzballs can be understood using string theory. Mathur’s formulation also seems to match well with physical reality.